*Sideroblastic Anemia

Chapter: Sideroblastic Anemia
McMaster Section Editor(s): Mark Crowther
Section Editor(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Andrzej Hellmann, Bogdan Ochrem
McMaster Author(s): Mark Crowther
Author(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Maria Podolak-Dawidziak
Additional Information

See also: Anemia: General Considerations.

Definition, EtiologyTop

Sideroblastic anemia refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders of heme synthesis characterized by the presence of hypochromic red blood cells and accumulation of iron in the cytoplasm of erythroblasts (sideroblasts). It may be inherited or acquired. Acquired sideroblastic anemia may be further divided into clonal (classified as myelodysplastic syndrome) or metabolic (reversible), caused by copper or pyridoxine deficiency, zinc or lead poisoning, drugs (isoniazid, cycloserine, chloramphenicol), or alcohol dependency.

Clinical FeaturesTop

Clinical features are nonspecific and include general symptoms of anemia (in patients with severe disease) as well as manifestations of the underlying condition. Complete blood count and biochemical tests: Table 1 in Iron Deficiency Anemia. Bone marrow examination reveals increased iron deposition and ring sideroblasts (the diagnostic criterion is >10% of ring sideroblasts).

TreatmentTop

Treatment of the underlying condition in acquired reversible cases. In inherited anemia, attempt a course of treatment with pyridoxine 50 to 200 mg/d; if this is ineffective, use symptomatic treatment (packed red blood cell transfusions, treatment of iron overload).

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