Cardiomyopathy

Chapter: Cardiomyopathy
McMaster Section Editor(s): P.J. Devereaux
Section Editor(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Andrzej Budaj, Wiktoria Leśniak
McMaster Author(s): Harriette G.C. Van Spall, Shoeb Ahsan
Author(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Jan Wodniecki
Additional Information

Definition and ClassificationTop

Cardiomyopathies are myocardial disorders in which the myocardium is structurally and functionally abnormal in the absence of significant coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart disease. These 4 conditions can cause left ventricular dysfunction from volume or pressure overload and are excluded from the classification scheme of cardiomyopathies by the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.

While classification schemes vary, cardiomyopathies are typically classified according to morphologic phenotypes, which can be further divided into familial or nonfamilial forms.

Classification:

1) Dilated cardiomyopathy.

2) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

3) Restrictive cardiomyopathy.

4) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

5) Unclassified cardiomyopathy.

Each of the above 5 types of cardiomyopathy can be further classified as:

1) Familial (genetic) cardiomyopathy: Occurrence in more than one family member of a phenotype caused by the same genetic mutation or a de novo mutation in an index patient that can be transmitted to offspring.

2) Nonfamilial (nongenetic) cardiomyopathy: Either idiopathic (of an unknown cause) or acquired (associated with toxins, infections, other diseases).

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