*Unclassified Cardiomyopathies

Chapter: Unclassified Cardiomyopathies
McMaster Section Editor(s): P.J. Devereaux
Section Editor(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Andrzej Budaj, Wiktoria Leśniak
McMaster Author(s): Harriette G.C. Van Spall, Shoeb Ahsan
Author(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Jan Wodniecki, Wiktoria Leśniak
Additional Information

1. Stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a nonfamilial cardiomyopathy characterized by acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after emotional or physiologic stress. It is a form of myocardial stunning that is associated with hyperkinesis of the basal LV segments, akinesis of mid LV segments, and dyskinesis of the apical LV segments.

Clinically takotsubo cardiomyopathy can present with ST-segment elevations followed by inverted T waves associated with chest pain and elevations in serum troponin levels. As such, this is a diagnosis of exclusion after acute coronary syndrome has been ruled out. LV contractility normalizes within days, and electrocardiography changes resolve much later, within weeks or months. The prognosis is often good.

2. LV noncompaction is a congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent trabeculation in the LV myocardium due to failure of compaction of the trabeculae during gestation. Clinical features include systolic dysfunction with heart failure, thromboembolic complications, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is made based on characteristic features found on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, or LV ventriculography.

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