Unclassified Cardiomyopathies

How to Cite This Chapter: Van Spall HGC, Ahsan S, Wodniecki J, Leśniak W. Unclassified Cardiomyopathies. McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine. Kraków: Medycyna Praktyczna. https://empendium.com/mcmtextbook/chapter/B31.II.2.16.5 Accessed February 18, 2020.
Last Updated: July 17, 2017
Last Reviewed: April 27, 2019
Chapter Information

1. Stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a nonfamilial cardiomyopathy characterized by acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after emotional or physiologic stress. It is a form of myocardial stunning that is associated with hyperkinesis of the basal LV segments, akinesis of mid LV segments, and dyskinesis of the apical LV segments.

Clinically takotsubo cardiomyopathy can present with ST-segment elevations followed by inverted T waves associated with chest pain and elevations in serum troponin levels. As such, this is a diagnosis of exclusion after acute coronary syndrome has been ruled out. LV contractility normalizes within days, and electrocardiography changes resolve much later, within weeks or months. The prognosis is often good.

2. LV noncompaction is a congenital cardiomyopathy characterized by prominent trabeculation in the LV myocardium due to failure of compaction of the trabeculae during gestation. Clinical features include systolic dysfunction with heart failure, thromboembolic complications, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis is made based on characteristic features found on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, or LV ventriculography.

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