Definition, etiology, pathogenesis Top
Clinical features and diagnosis Top
Symptoms of shock (usually rapidly evolving) and of the underlying disease are seen.
Imaging studies are crucial: Chest radiographs may show pneumothorax. Computed tomography (CT) angiography may confirm pulmonary embolism. Ultrasonography may detect or suggest cardiac tamponade, heart tumors, intracardiac thrombosis, pneumothorax, and venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism.
See also diagnostic tests in shock.
Manage the underlying condition as soon as possible. In patients with cardiac tamponade, perform pericardiocentesis. In the case of tension pneumothorax, perform decompression. In patients with pulmonary embolism, administer thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy (see Pulmonary Embolism). In the case of heart tumor, intracardiac thrombosis, or cardiac tamponade related to aortic dissection or heart wall rupture, refer the patient for cardiac surgery.