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Definition, etiology, pathogenesis Top
Clinical features and diagnosis Top
Symptoms of shock (usually rapidly evolving) and of the underlying disease.
Imaging studies are crucial: Chest radiography may show pneumothorax. Computed tomography (CT) angiography may confirm pulmonary embolism. Ultrasonography may detect or suggest cardiac tamponade, heart tumors, intracardiac thrombosis, pneumothorax, and venous thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism.
Also see Shock.
Manage the underlying condition as soon as possible. In patients with cardiac tamponade, perform pericardiocentesis. In case of tension pneumothorax, perform decompression. In patients with pulmonary embolism, consider administration of thrombolysis and start anticoagulation therapy if feasible (see Pulmonary Embolism). In case of a heart tumor, intracardiac thrombosis, or cardiac tamponade related to aortic dissection or heart wall rupture, refer the patient for cardiac surgery.