Contained Rupture of Aortic Aneurysm

Chapter: Contained Rupture of Aortic Aneurysm
McMaster Section Editor(s): David Szalay
Section Editor(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Andrzej Budaj, Wiktoria Leśniak
McMaster Author(s): David Szalay
Author(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Marzena Frołow, Wiktoria Leśniak
Additional Information

Definition, Etiology, PathogenesisTop

Contained rupture of aortic aneurysm refers to disruption of the aortic wall (sometimes also involving formation of a pseudoaneurysm) associated with the development of perivascular hematoma that is sealed off by periaortic structures: the pleura, pericardium, retroperitoneal space, or adjacent organs.

Clinical Features and Natural HistoryTop

Symptoms:

1) A sudden-onset acute pain in the chest or back (or both). In patients with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, abdominal pain may be present.

2) Acute respiratory failure due to aortic rupture into the left hemithorax.

3) Rarely, bleeding from the respiratory tract or from the upper gastrointestinal tract.

The closer the location of rupture to the aortic valve, the higher the risk of death. Over 75% of patients die within 24 hours.

DiagnosisTop

Suspected aortic rupture is an indication for urgent computed tomography angiography (CTA) without contrast enhancement to detect possible intramural hematomas and subsequently for contrast-enhanced CTA to locate the rupture.

TreatmentTop

Invasive treatment (endovascular treatment is superior), regardless of the size of the aneurysm.

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