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Definition, Etiology, PathogenesisTop
Cardiomyopathies with or without depressed left ventricular (LV) function may be associated with ventricular arrhythmias, most commonly paroxysmal monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT).
Patients with dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can present with monomorphic VT or with ventricular fibrillation (VF) usually coming from the LV. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, monomorphic VT is most frequently originating in the right ventricle, thus having a left bundle branch block (LBBB) appearance.
Clinical Features and Natural HistoryTop
Clinical features depend on the VT rate and severity of cardiomyopathy. VT episodes may be recurrent and increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD).
Like in patients after myocardial infarction (MI), the myocardial origin of the monomorphic VT can be generally assessed by the electrocardiographic (ECG) appearance (right bundle branch block [RBBB]-like vs LBBB-like when coming from the left or right ventricle, respectively) and the axis (superior or inferior).
Bundle branch reentrant VT is a rare type of VT that can occur in patients with cardiomyopathy and abnormal His-Purkinje conduction (wide baseline QRS). It is a circuit that uses both bundle branches. Usually the myocardium is activated by the right bundle, which is why the VT has an LBBB appearance.
Classification of antiarrhythmic drugs: see Table 3.4-1.
Antiarrhythmic agents: see Table 3.4-2.
1. Treatment includes beta-blockers and antiarrhythmics. Ablation may reduce the burden of VT, although results are not as good as in ischemic VT ablation. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is almost always indicated in patients who have had VT or VF episodes and in specific populations as a prophylactic indication (based on LV ejection fraction). Indications for prophylactic ICD implantation in patients with cardiomyopathy to prevent SCD: see Sudden Cardiac Death.
2. In patients with bundle branch reentrant VT, the recommended treatment is catheter ablation. Patients may require pacemaker insertion after the procedure. Antiarrhythmic therapy is usually ineffective.