Table 16.7-4. Common clinical situations that can require referral for neuropsychological assessment

Medical conditions

– Cerebrovascular disorders (stroke) and risk factors

– Seizure disorders

– Traumatic brain injury

– Neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinsonian syndromes)

– Brain tumors (post surgery/radiation/chemotherapy)

– Central nervous system infections

– Multiple sclerosis

– Complex multiple systemic medical conditions

Clinical questions to address

– Differential diagnosis

– Identifying cognitive strengths and weaknesses

– Determining changes/dysfunction in cognition in terms of presence and severity of impairment

– Determining whether changes/dysfunction in cognition are associated with neurologic disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, systemic medical conditions, or are multifactorial

– Monitoring cognition over time to assist with determining a prognosis

– Providing treatment guidelines, expectations, and education for treatment teams, caregivers, and family