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McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine is addressed to health-care professionals. The information provided on the site and through affiliated services, such as applications for mobile devices, has never been intended as a replacement for consultation with adequately qualified health-care professionals. McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine cannot be considered a source of medical advice or provider of diagnostic services. Decisions regarding treatment or diagnosis cannot be made solely on the basis of information provided by McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine and must always be based on professional medical advice.

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