Table 13.7-4. Categories for specific nonpharmacologic interventions for neuropsychiatric symptoms

Sensory enhancement/relaxation

Social contact: real or simulated

Behavior therapy

– Massage and touch

– Individualized music

– White noise

– Controlled multisensory stimulation (Snoezelen)

– Art therapy

– Aromatherapy

– Individualized social contact

– Pet therapy

– 1:1 social interaction

– Simulated interactions/family videos

– Differential reinforcement

– Stimulus control

Structured activities

Environmental modifications

Training & development

– Recreational activities

– Outdoor walks

– Physical activities

– Wandering areas

– Natural/enhanced environments

– Reduced stimulation

– Light therapy

– Staff education

– Staff support

– Training programs for family caregivers