Table 3.8-1. Initial differentiation between cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

Clinical features

Pulmonary edema

Cardiogenic

Noncardiogenic

Skin

Cold

Usually warm

Gallop

Present

Usually absent

Electrocardiography

Features of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction

Usually normal

Chest radiographs

Hilar pulmonary venous congestion and edema

Initially peripheral pulmonary venous congestion and edema

Blood levels of cardiac troponins

May be increased

Usually normal