Table 14.1-2. Principles of using benzodiazepines in dyspnea accompanied by anxiety in patients receiving palliative care

Clinical setting


Dyspnea attacks causing anxiety or panic attacks causing dyspnea

Anxiolytic such as clonazepam 0.5 mg or 1 mg bid to tid PO, or lorazepam starting from 0.5 mg POb

a No strict dosage regimens exist. Dosage is determined on an individual basis. Consider dose reduction in elderly patients, patients with cachexia, frail patients, and in patients with severe pulmonary comorbidities (eg, COPD).

b In patients with coexistent COPD some authors recommend titration of the rescue dose starting from 0.25 mg.

COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PO, oral.