Table 3.18-7. Causes of secondary Raynaud phenomenon

Systemic connective tissue diseases

­– Eosinophilic fasciitis

­– Mixed connective tissue disease

­– Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

­– Primary biliary cirrhosis

­– Rheumatoid arthritis

­– Systemic lupus erythematosus

­– Scleroderma

­– Antiphospholipid syndrome

­– Sjögren syndrome

­– Polymyositis

­– Dermatomyositis

Vasculitides

­– Behçet disease

­– Buerger disease

­– Takayasu disease

­– Polyarteritis nodosa

­– Other systemic vasculitides

­– Atherosclerosis (rare)

­– Diabetic microangiopathy

­– Microembolization

­– Giant cell arteritis

­– Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)

Occupational exposure

­– Vibration and repetitive mechanical finger injuries

­­– Exposure to cold

Intoxication and chemical agents

­– Vinyl chloride poisoning

­– Cocaine

– Heavy metal poisoning (lead, thallium)

­– Nicotine

­– Acrylic artificial nails

Blood disorders

­­– Leukemia and lymphoma

– Cold agglutinin disease

­– Polycythemia vera

– Monoclonal and polyclonal cryoglobulinemia

­– Cryofibrinogenemia

­­­– Essential thrombocythemia

– Multiple myeloma

­– Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Central nervous system disorders

­– Syringomyelia

­– Tabes dorsalis

Compression syndromes

­– Thoracic outlet syndrome

­– Carpal tunnel syndrome

­– Compression syndrome following use of forearm crutches

Drugs

­– Ergot derivatives

­– Beta-blockers

­– Oral contraceptives

­– Vincristine

­– Bleomycin­

­– Cyclosporine

­– Interferon alpha

­– Interferon gamma­

Infectious diseases

­­– Leprosy

­– Cytomegalovirus infection

­– Parvovirus infection

­– Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

­– Helicobacter pylori infection

– Hepatitis B

­– Hepatitis C

Other disorders

­­– Anorexia nervosa

– Cancer

– Frostbite

– Primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension

­– Arteriovenous shunts (including those related to dialysis)

­­­– Familial cold urticaria

­– Carney complex