Table 13.6-1. Screening for depression: 9-question Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)

Questions

Over the last 2 weeks, how often have you been bothered by any of the following problems?

1. Little interest or pleasure in doing things

2. Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless

3. Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much

4. Feeling tired or having little energy

5. Poor appetite or overeating

6. Feeling bad about yourself or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down

7. Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television

8. Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed. Or the opposite: being so fidgety or restless that you have been moving around a lot more than usual

9. Thoughts that you would be better off dead or of hurting yourself in some way

Each criterion is scored as “0” (not at all) to “3” (nearly every day).

A total score ≥10 has a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for major depression.