Table 6.1-3. Causes of mineralocorticoid-dependent hypertension

Low renin, high aldosterone

Primary aldosteronism

Low renin, low aldosterone

– Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: 17alpha-hydroxylase or 11beta‑hydroxylase deficit

– Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (11beta‑HSD2 deficit), genetic or acquired (eg, black licorice)

– DOC-secreting adrenal tumor

– Liddle syndrome

– Exogenous mineralocorticoid (eg, fludrocortisone)

– Cushing syndrome

– Primary cortisol resistance

High renin, high aldosterone

– Renal artery stenosis

– Malignant hypertension

– Coarctation of the aorta

– Renin-secreting tumors (reninoma)

– High doses of diuretics

– Ectopic nonrenal renin-producing tumors

11beta‑HSD2, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2; DOC, 11-deoxycorticosterone.