Table 1.3-3. Risk assessment following syncope

Major risk factors

Abnormal ECG

Any bradyarrhythmia, tachyarrhythmia, or conduction disorder, ischemia, or history of myocardial infarction

History of cardiac disease

Ischemic, arrhythmic, obstructive, valvular


Systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg

Minor risk factors

Cerebrovascular disease

Family history of sudden cardiac death

At age <50 years

Specific situations

Syncope while supine, during exercise, or no prodromal symptoms

ECG, electrocardiography.