1. Gastric and/or duodenal ulcer (active or healed, as well as complications of ulcer disease)
2. Gastric MALT lymphoma
3. First-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer
4. Prior endoscopic or subtotal gastric resection in the treatment of gastric neoplasia (MALT lymphoma, gastric adenoma, gastric cancer)
5. Severe pangastritis, corpus-predominant gastritis, or severe atrophy
6. Chronic gastric acid inhibition for >1 year
7. Strong environmental risk factors for gastric cancer (heavy smoking, high exposure to dust, coal, quartz, cement, and/or work in quarries)
8. At the patient’s request in case of fear of gastric cancer
9. Dyspepsia not associated with peptic ulcer
10. Undiagnosed dyspepsia (test-and-treat strategy)a
11. Prevention of development of ulcers and their complications before or during a long-term NSAID treatmentb
12. Unexplained iron deficiency anemia
13. Primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura
14. Vitamin B12 deficiency
a In regions with a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, the effectiveness of this strategy is low and empiric acid inhibition is an equivalent option.
b In patients who are already receiving long-term NSAID treatment, it is recommended to combine eradication with PPI administration.
MALT, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.