Guías: dieta en las enfermedades intestinales inflamatorias

03.12.2021
Dieta w nieswoistych chorobach zapalnych jelit. Omówienie wskazówek International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease 2020
Alina Niezgódka-Klósak, prof. Piotr Eder (MD, PhD)

A recordar

Recomendaciones sobre la modificación de la dieta de los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn (EC)

1. Los pacientes con EC no deben consumir productos lácteos no pasteurizados.

2. Parece razonable recomendar a los pacientes con EC:

  • un consumo entre moderado y alto de frutas y verduras, y a los enfermos sintomáticos o con estenosis gastrointestinales significativas, limitar el consumo de fibra insoluble
  • limitar el consumo de alimentos que contienen maltodextrina, edulcorantes artificiales, carragenano, carboximetilcelulosa, polisorbato 80, dióxido de titanio y sulfitos
  • seguir una dieta con bajo contenido en oligosacáridos, disacáridos, monosacáridos y polioles fermentables (baja en FODMAP), si los síntomas de la enfermedad persisten a pesar de la remisión de la inflamación y no hay estenosis gastrointestinales.

Recomendaciones sobre la modificación de la dieta de los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa (CU)

1. Los enfermos con CU no deben consumir productos lácteos no pasteurizados.

2. Parece razonable recomendar a los pacientes con CU:

  • reducir el consumo de carne roja y procesada
  • limitar el consumo de ácido mirístico (aceite de palma, aceite de coco, grasas de productos lácteos) y grasas trans, y aumentar el consumo de ácidos grasos omega-3 (eicosapentaenoico [EPA] y docosahexaenoico [DHA]) procedentes de pescado de mar, pero no de suplementos nutricionales
  • limitar el consumo de alimentos que contienen maltodextrina, edulcorantes artificiales, carragenano, carboximetilcelulosa, polisorbato 80, dióxido de titanio y sulfitos
  • seguir una dieta con bajo contenido en oligosacáridos, disacáridos, monosacáridos y polioles fermentables (baja en FODMAP) si los síntomas de la enfermedad persisten a pesar de la remisión de la inflamación gastrointestinal.

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