Abbreviations

17-OHCS

17-hydroxycorticosteroid

5-ASA

5-aminosalicylic acid

5-HIAA

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid

β-hCG

β-human chorionic gonadotropin

A

AA

aplastic anemia

AAE

acquired angioedema

AASLD

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

ABC

airway, breathing, circulation

ABI

ankle-brachial index

ABPA

allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

ABPM

ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

ABU

asymptomatic bacteriuria

ABVD

doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine

ACA

anticentromere antibody

ACD

anemia of chronic disease

AChE

acetylcholinesterase

ACEI

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

ACEI-AAE

acquired angioedema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

ACG

American College of Gastroenterology

aCL

anticardiolipin

ACLE

acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

ACLS

advanced cardiac life support

ACO

asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap

ACP

American College of Physicians

ACPA

anticitrullinated protein antibody

ACR

albumin to creatinine ratio

ACR

American College of Rheumatology

ACS

abdominal compartment syndrome

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

ACT

activated clotting time

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

AD

Alzheimer disease

ADA

American Diabetes Association

ADF

adefovir

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

ADPKD

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

ADQI

Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative

ADTKD

autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease

AE

angioedema

AED

automated external defibrillator

AERD

aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

AF

atrial fibrillation

AFB

acid-fast bacillus

AFL

atrial flutter

AFP

α-fetoprotein

AG

anion gap

AGLT

acidified glycerol lysis test

AHA

acquired hemophilia A

AHA

American Heart Association

AHF

acute heart failure

AHI

apnea-hypopnea index

AIA

aspirin-induced asthma

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AIH

autoimmune hepatitis

AIHA

autoimmune hemolytic anemia

AIN

acute interstitial nephritis

AIP

acute intermittent porphyria

AIP

acute interstitial pneumonia

AIVR

accelerated idioventricular rhythm

AJCC

American Joint Committee on Cancer

AKI

acute kidney injury

AKIN

Acute Kidney Injury Network

ALA

aminolevulinic acid

ALF

acute liver failure

ALL

acute lymphoblastic leukemia

ALP

alkaline phosphatase

ALS

advanced life support

ALT

alanine aminotransferase

AMA

antimitochondrial antibody

AMAG

autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis

AmB

amphotericin B

AML

acute myeloid leukemia

AML-MRC

acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes

ANA

antinuclear antibody

ANC

absolute neutrophil count

ANCA

antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

ANP

atrial natriuretic peptide

AOBP

automated office blood pressure

AOSD

adult-onset Still disease

AP

anteroposterior

aPCC

activated prothrombin complex concentrate

APD

automated peritoneal dialysis

APFC

acute peripancreatic fluid collection

APL

acute promyelocytic leukemia

APLA

antiphospholipid antibody

APRI

aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index

APS

antiphospholipid syndrome

APS-1

autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1

aPTT

activated partial thromboplastin time

AR

aortic regurgitation

ARB

angiotensin receptor blocker

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARFID

avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder

ARIA

Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma

ARNI

angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor

ARPKD

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

ARR

aldosterone to renin ratio

ARS

acute retroviral syndrome

ART

antiretroviral treatment

ARVC

arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

AS

ankylosing spondylitis

AS

aortic stenosis

ASA

acetylsalicylic acid

ASAS

Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society

ASCA

anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody

ASD

atrial septal defect

ASO

antistreptolysin O

AST

aspartate aminotransferase

AT

antithrombin

AT

atrial tachycardia

ATG

antithymocyte globulin

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

ATS

American Thoracic Society

AV

atrioventricular

AVA

aortic valve area

AVF

arteriovenous fistula

AVN

avascular necrosis

AVNRT

atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia

AVR

aortic valve replacement

AVRT

atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia

B

BAL

bronchoalveolar lavage

BAS

balloon atrial septostomy

BB

buffer base

BCAA

branched-chain amino acid

BCG

bacillus Calmette-Guérin

BCS

Budd-Chiari syndrome

BDI

Beck Depression Inventory

BE

base excess

BEACOPPesc

bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone

BED

binge eating disorder

bid

2 times a day

BIG-IV

Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous

BiPAP

bilevel positive airway pressure

BL

Burkitt lymphoma

BLS

basic life support

BMD

bone mineral density

BMI

body mass index

BMS

bare-metal stent

BN

bulimia nervosa

BNP

B-type natriuretic peptide; brain natriuretic peptide

BOOP

bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

BOS

bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

BP

blood pressure

BPA

balloon pulmonary angioplasty

BPSD

behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

BrS

Brugada syndrome

BSA

body surface area

BSR

British Society for Rheumatology

BTS

British Thoracic Society

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

bvFTD

behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia

C

c-ANCA

cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

C1-INH

C1 inhibitor

C1-INH-AAE

acquired angioedema associated with C1-inhibitor deficiency

C1-INH-HAE

hereditary angioedema associated with C1-inhibitor deficiency

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

coronary artery disease

CADM

clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis

CAM

Confusion Assessment Method

CAMS

Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality

CAP

community-acquired pneumonia

CAPD

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

CAPS

catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

cART

combined antiretroviral therapy

CAS

Clinical Activity Score

CASL

Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver

CASPAR

Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis

CAT

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test

CBC

complete blood count

CBD

cannabidiol

CBT

cognitive behavioral therapy

cccDNA

covalently closed circular DNA

CCLE

chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus

CCQ

clinical chronic obstructive pulmonary disease questionnaire

CCS

Canadian Cardiovascular Society

CCTA

coronary computed tomography angiography

CCTGA

congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries

CCyR

complete cytogenetic response

CDI

Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile infection

CDRIE

cardiac device–related infective endocarditis

CEL

chronic eosinophilic leukemia

CEL-NOS

chronic eosinophilic leukemia not otherwise specified

CF

cystic fibrosis

CFU

colony-forming unit

CGM

continuous glucose monitoring

CHE

covert hepatic encephalopathy

ChEI

cholinesterase inhibitor

CHF

chronic heart failure

CHIP

clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential

CHOP

cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone

CHR

complete hematologic response

CIN

chronic interstitial nephritis

CIN

contrast-induced nephropathy

CK

creatine kinase

CKD

chronic kidney disease

CKD-EPI

Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration

CK-MB

creatine kinase MB subunit

CLE

cutaneous lupus erythematosus

CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CM

cutaneous mastocytosis

CMA

Canadian Medical Association

CML

chronic myelogenous leukemia

CMML

chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

CMPA

Canadian Medical Protective Association

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CNS

central nervous system

CO

cardiac output

COP

cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COX

cyclooxygenase

CPAP

continuous positive airway pressure

CPE

carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

CPP

calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate

CPPD

calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPVT

catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

CR

complete remission

CRBSI

catheter-related bloodstream infection

CRH

corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRP

C-reactive protein

CRPS

complex regional pain syndrome

CRRT

continuous renal replacement

CRT

cardiac resynchronization therapy

CRT-D

cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

CSII

continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

CSU

chronic spontaneous urticaria

CT

computed tomography

CTA

computed tomography angiography

CTD

connective tissue disease

CTD-ILD

connective tissue disease–related interstitial lung disease

CTEPH

chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

CTI

cavotricuspid isthmus

cTnI

cardiac-specific troponin I

cTnT

cardiac-specific troponin T

CTPA

computed tomography pulmonary angiography

CTS

carpal tunnel syndrome

CTX

cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

CTSI

computed tomography severity index

CUS

compression ultrasonography

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CVP

central venous pressure

CVP

cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone

CVST

cerebral vein and sinus thrombosis

CVVHDF

continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration

CXR

chest x-ray

CyBorD

cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone

D

DAA

direct-acting antiviral

DAD

diffuse alveolar damage

DAH

diffuse alveolar hemorrhage

DALY

disability-adjusted life year

DASH

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

DBP

diastolic blood pressure

DBT

dialectical behavior therapy

DCM

dilated cardiomyopathy

dcSSc

diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

DEET

diethyltoluamide

DES

drug-eluting stent

DFA

direct fluorescent antibody

DFS

disease-free survival

DGP

deamidated gliadin peptide

DHEA

dehydroepiandrosterone

DHEAS

dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DILI

drug-induced liver injury

DISH

diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

DIOS

distal intestinal obstruction syndrome

DIP

desquamative interstitial pneumonia

DIP

distal interphalangeal

DIPSS

dynamic international prognostic scoring system

DKA

diabetic ketoacidosis

DKD

diabetic kidney disease

DLB

dementia with Lewy bodies

DLBCL

diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

DLCO

carbon dioxide diffusing capacity of the lungs

DLE

discoid lupus erythematosus

DM

dermatomyositis

DM

diabetes mellitus

DMARD

disease-modifying antirheumatic drug

DME

diabetic macular edema

DNase

deoxyribonuclease

DNR

do not resuscitate

DOAC

direct oral anticoagulant

DOT

directly observed therapy

DPI

dry powder inhaler

DPP-4

dipeptidyl peptidase 4

DRE

digital rectal examination

DRESS

drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms

dRTA

distal renal tubular acidosis

DSA

digital subtraction angiography

dsDNA

double-stranded DNA

DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition)

dT

diphtheria, tetanus vaccine

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

DXA

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

E

EAggEC

enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

EASL

European Association for the Study of the Liver

EBNA

Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

ECCO

European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation

ECDC

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

ECF

extracellular fluid

ECG

electrocardiography

ECLA

extracorporeal lung assist

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ECOG

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

ECT

ecarin clotting time

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EEG

electroencephalography

EF

ejection fraction

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

EGDT

early goal-directed therapy

eGFR

estimated glomerular filtration rate

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

EGPA

eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome)

EHEC

enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

EHRA

European Heart Rhythm Association

EIA

enzyme immunoassay

EIA

exercise-induced anaphylaxis

EIEC

enteroinvasive Escherichia coli

ELF

Enhanced Liver Fibrosis

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EmA

endomysial antibody

EMB

ethambutol

EMG

electromyography

EMR

endoscopic mucosal resection

EN

enteral nutrition

ENA

extractable nuclear antigen

ENDS

electronic nicotine delivery system

ENT

ear, nose, and throat

EOAD

early-onset Alzheimer disease

EoE

eosinophilic esophagitis

EPDS

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

EPEC

enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

EPO

erythropoietin

EPS

electrophysiologic study

EPS

extrapyramidal symptom

ERA

endothelin-receptor antagonist

ERA-EDTA

European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association

ERC

European Resuscitation Council

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

ERS

European Respiratory Society

ERV

expiratory reserve volume

ESA

erythropoiesis-stimulating agent

ESBL

extended-spectrum β-lactamase

ESC

European Society of Cardiology

ESD

endoscopic submucosal dissection

ESPGHAN

European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

ESS

endoscopic sinus surgery

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

ET

essential thrombocythemia

ETEC

enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

ETV

entecavir

EUGOGO

European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy

EULAR

European League Against Rheumatism

EUS

endoscopic ultrasonography

F

FAM

fluticasone, azithromycin, montelukast

FAP

familial adenomatous polyposis

FCR

fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FDG

fluorodeoxyglucose

FDG-PET

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

FEV1

forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FFED

four-food elimination diet

FFP

fresh-frozen plasma

FFR

functional flow reserve

FGF23

fibroblast growth factor 23

FH

familial hypercholesterolemia

FiO2

fraction of inspired oxygen

FISH

fluorescent in situ hybridization

FHH

familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

FIT

fecal immunochemical test

FL

follicular lymphoma

FLC

free light chain

FMT

fecal microbiota transplantation

FNA

fine-needle aspiration

FNB

fine-needle biopsy

FOBT

fecal occult blood test

FODMAP

fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols

FPE

food protein-induced enteropathy

FPG

fasting plasma glucose

FQN

fluoroquinolone

FRAX

fracture risk assessment tool

FRC

functional residual capacity

FSGS

focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

FSPA

fractionated plasma separation and adsorption

FT3

free triiodothyronine

FT4

free thyroxine

FTD

frontotemporal dementia

FTND

Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence

FUO

fever of unknown origin

FVC

forced vital capacity

FXII-HAE

factor XII-associated hereditary angioedema

G

G6PD

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

GABHS

group A β-hemolytic streptococcus

GAD

generalized anxiety disorder

GAD

glutamic acid decarboxylase

GAHS

Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score

GAS

group A streptococcus

GAVE

gastric antral vascular ectasia

GBM

glomerular basement membrane

GBS

Guillain-Barré syndrome

GCA

giant cell arteritis

GCC

guanylate cyclase C

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

G-CSF

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GD

Graves disease

GDH

glutamate dehydrogenase

GDM

gestational diabetes mellitus

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GFD

gluten-free diet

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

GGT

γ-glutamyl transferase (transpeptidase)

GH

growth hormone

GHRH

growth hormone–releasing hormone

GL

gastric lavage

GnRH

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

GI

gastrointestinal

GINA

Global Initiative for Asthma

GIP

gastric inhibitory peptide

GISA

glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

GITS

gastrointestinal therapeutic system

GLP

glucagon-like peptide

GM-CSF

granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GO

Graves orbitopathy

GOLD

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

GP

glycoprotein

GPA

granulomatosis with polyangiitis

GPI-AP

glycosylphosphatidylinositol-associated protein

GRACE

Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events

GRV

gastric residual volume

GVHD

graft-versus-host disease

H

H2-RA

histamine type 2 receptor antagonist

HA

hemolytic anemia

HAART

highly active antiretroviral therapy

HAE

hereditary angioedema

HAP

hospital-acquired pneumonia

HAV

hepatitis A virus

Hb

hemoglobin

HbA1c

glycated hemoglobin

HBcAg

hepatitis B core antigen

HBeAg

hepatitis B e antigen

HbF

fetal hemoglobin

HBI

half-body irradiation

HBIG

hepatitis B immunoglobulin

HBOT

hyperbaric oxygen therapy

HbS

sickle hemoglobin

HbSS

homozygous sickle hemoglobin

HBsAg

hepatitis B surface antigen

HBT

hydrogen breath testing

HBV

hepatitis B virus

HCAP

health care–associated pneumonia

HCC

hepatocellular carcinoma

hCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

HCL

hairy cell leukemia

HCM

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

HCV

hepatitis C virus

HD

hemodialysis

HDAg

hepatitis delta antigen

HDGC

hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

HDL-C

high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

HDV

hepatitis D virus

HE

hematoxylin-eosin

HE

hepatic encephalopathy

HE

hypereosinophilia

HeFH

heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

HEPA

high-efficiency particulate air

HER2

human epidermal growth factor receptor 2

HES

hydroxyethyl starch

HES

hypereosinophilic syndrome

HEV

hepatitis E virus

HF

heart failure

HFE-HH

HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis

HFmrEF

heart failure with midrange ejection fraction

HFpEF

heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

HFrEF

heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

HFMD

hand-foot-and-mouth disease

HH

hereditary hemochromatosis

HHS

hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

HHT

hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

HHV

human herpesvirus

Hib

Haemophilus influenzae type b

hIBM

hereditary inclusion body myositis

HIT

heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HL

Hodgkin lymphoma

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

HLH

hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

HMG-CoA

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A

HNPCC

hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer

HOCM

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

HOMA-IR

homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance

HPA

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

HPF

high-power field

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

HPOA

hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy

HPS

hepatopulmonary syndrome

HPV

human papillomavirus

HRCT

high-resolution computed tomography

HRS

hepatorenal syndrome

HRT

heart rate turbulence

HRV

heart rate variability

HS

hereditary spherocytosis

HSCT

hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

HSR

hypersensitivity reaction

hsTn

high-sensitivity troponin test

HSV

herpes simplex virus

Ht

hematocrit

HTIG

human tetanus immunoglobulin

HUS

hemolytic-uremic syndrome

HV

His-ventricular

HVPG

hepatic venous pressure gradient

I

IAH

intra-abdominal hypertension

IBD

inflammatory bowel disease

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome

IBS-C

irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation

IBS-D

irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea

IBS-M

irritable bowel syndrome with mixed bowel habits

IBS-U

unclassified irritable bowel syndrome

IC

inspiratory capacity

ICA

islet cell antibody

iCBT

internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy

ICD

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

ICD

International Classification of Diseases

ICF

intracellular fluid

ICP

intracranial pressure

ICS

inhaled corticosteroid

ICU

intensive care unit

ICUS

idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance

IDSA

Infectious Diseases Society of America

IDUS

idiopathic dysplasia of uncertain significance

IEL

intraepithelial lymphocyte

IF

intrinsic factor

IFA

indirect fluorescent antibody

IFG

impaired fasting blood glucose

IFN

interferon

IgAV

IgA vasculitis

IGF-1

insulin-like growth factor 1

IgG4-RKD

IgG4-related kidney disease

IGRA

interferon γ release assay

IGT

impaired glucose tolerance

IH-AAE

idiopathic histaminergic acquired angioedema

IHD

ischemic heart disease

IHS

International Headache Society

InH-AAE

idiopathic nonhistaminergic acquired angioedema

IIP

idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

IL

interleukin

ILD

interstitial lung disease

ILR

implantable loop recorder

IM

intramuscular

IMIG

intramuscular immunoglobulin

IMT

intima-media thickness

INCS

intranasal corticosteroid

INH

isoniazid

INN

international nonproprietary name

INR

international normalized ratio

INSTI

integrase strand transfer inhibitor

IPC

intermittent pneumatic compression

IPF

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

IPMN

intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

IPSS

international prognostic scoring system

IPSS-R

revised international prognostic scoring system

iPTH

intact parathyroid hormone

IRIS

immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

IRV

inspiratory reserve volume

ITP

immune thrombocytopenia

IUGR

intrauterine growth restriction

IV

intravenous

IVC

inferior vena cava

IVDU

intravenous drug use

IVF

idiopathic ventricular fibrillation

IVIG

intravenous immunoglobulin

J

JAK

Janus kinase

K

KDIGO

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

L

L-T3

liothyronine

L-T4

levothyroxine

LA

lupus anticoagulant

LABA

long-acting β2-agonist

LACI

lacunar stroke

LACS

lacunar stroke syndrome

LAD

left anterior descending artery

LADA

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

LAFB

left anterior fascicular block

LAM

lamivudine

LAM

lymphangioleiomyomatosis

LAMA

long-acting muscarinic antagonist

LBBB

left bundle branch block

LBL

lymphoblastic lymphoma

LCAT

lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase

lcSSc

limited cutaneous SSc

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LDHL

lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin lymphoma

LDL-C

low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

LES

lower esophageal sphincter

LFAmB

lipid formulations of amphotericin B

LFS

leukemia-free survival

LGLL

large granular lymphocytic leukemia

LLN

lower limit of normal

LH

luteinizing hormone

LMWH

low-molecular-weight heparin

LOC

level of consciousness

LOH

loss of heterozygosity

LPL

lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma

LQTS

long-QT syndrome

LR

likelihood ratio

LRHL

lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin lymphoma

lSSc

limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis

LTBI

latent tuberculosis infection

LV

left ventricle

LVAD

left ventricular assist device

LVEDD

left ventricular end-diastolic diameter

LVEF

left ventricular ejection fraction

LVESD

left ventricular end-systolic diameter

LVH

left ventricular hypertrophy

LVMI

left ventricular mass index

LVOT

left ventricular outflow tract

LVP

large-volume paracentesis

LVRS

lung volume reduction surgery

LVV

large-vessel vasculitis

M

MAC

Mycobacterium avium complex

MALT

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MAOI

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAP

mean arterial pressure

MARS

molecular adsorbent recirculating system

MAS

macrophage activation syndrome

MASCC

Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer

MAT

multifocal atrial tachycardia

MBP

mean blood pressure

MCD

minimal change disease

MCH

mean corpuscular hemoglobin

MCHC

mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

MCHL

mixed-cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma

MCI

mild cognitive impairment

MCKD

medullary cystic kidney disease

MCL

mantle cell lymphoma

MCN

mucinous cystic neoplasm

MCP

metacarpophalangeal

MCT

medium-chain triglyceride

MCTD

mixed connective tissue disease

MCV

mean corpuscular volume

MCV

molluscum contagiosum virus

MCV-4

conjugated 4-valent meningococcal vaccine

MCV-C

conjugated monovalent group C meningococcal vaccine

MCyR

major cytogenetic response

MD-CMML

myelodysplastic chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

MDD

major depressive disorder

MDF

Maddrey discriminant function

MDI

metered-dose inhaler

MDMA

3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine

MDR-TB

multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

MDRD

Modification of Diet in Renal Disease

MDS

myelodysplastic syndrome

MELDNa

Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Serum Sodium Concentration

MenB

recombinant monovalent group B meningococcal vaccine

MERS

Middle East respiratory syndrome

MET

metabolic equivalent

MF

mycosis fungoides

MGN

mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis

MGUS

monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

MI

myocardial infarction

MIA

malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis

MIBE

measles inclusion-body encephalitis

MIC

minimum inhibitory concentration

MIDD

monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease

MM

multiple myeloma

MMA

methylmalonic acid

MMF

mycophenolate mofetil

MMR

major molecular response

MMR

measles, mumps, rubella vaccine

mMRC

Modified Medical Research Council

MMSE

Mini Mental State Examination

MNT

medical nutrition therapy

MoCA

Montreal Cognitive Assessment

MODS

multiorgan dysfunction syndrome

MODY

maturity-onset diabetes of the young

MOTT

mycobacteria other than tuberculosis

MPA

microscopic polyangiitis

mPAP

mean pulmonary artery pressure

MP-CMML

myeloproliferative chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

MPGN

membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

MPN

myeloproliferative neoplasm

MPO

myeloperoxidase

MPT

melphalan, prednisone, thalidomide

MPV

mean platelet volume

MR

mitral regurgitation

MR

modified release

MRA

magnetic resonance angiography

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MRCNS

methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus

MRCP

magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

MRD

minimal residual disease

MR-proANP

midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide

MRS

magnetic resonance spectroscopy

MRSA

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MRSE

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

mRss

modified Rodnan skin score

MS

mitral stenosis

MSCT

multislice computed tomography

MSH

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

MSM

men who have sex with men

MSK

medullary sponge kidney

MSSA

methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

MSU

monosodium urate

MTC

medullary thyroid cancer

MTCT

mother-to-child transmission

mTOR

mammalian target of rapamycin

MTP

metatarsophalangeal

MTX

methotrexate

MVA

mitral valve area

MVG

mitral valve gradient

MVP

mitral valve prolapse

MVR

mitral valve replacement

MZL

marginal zone lymphoma

N

NA

nucleoside/nucleotide analogue

NAAT

nucleic acid amplification test

NAC

N-acetylcysteine

NAFL

nonalcoholic fatty liver

NAFLD

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

NARES

nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome

NASH

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

NaSSA

noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant

NECT

nonenhanced computed tomography

NERD

nonerosive reflux disease

NET

neuroendocrine tumor

NHL

non-Hodgkin lymphoma

NIAAA

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

NIHSS

National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

NIV

noninvasive ventilation

NK

natural killer

NKF KDOQI

National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative

NLPHL

nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

NNRTI

nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NNT

number needed to treat

NOS

not otherwise specified

NPDR

nonproliferative diabetes retinopathy

NPH

insulin isophane

NPI

Neuropsychiatric Inventory

NPS

neuropsychiatric symptom

NPSLE

neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

nrAxSpA

nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis

NRT

nicotine replacement therapy

NRTI

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NSAID

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSBB

nonselective β-blocker

NSHL

nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma

NSIP

nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

NSTE-ACS

non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

NSTEMI

non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

NSVT

nonsustained ventricular tachycardia

NTM

nontuberculous mycobacteria

NT-proBNP

N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide

NTDT

non–transfusion-dependent thalassemia

NTX

cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

NVE

native valve endocarditis

NYHA

New York Heart Association

O

OA

osteoarthritis

OBS

obliterative bronchiolitis syndrome

OCA

obeticholic acid

OCD

obsessive-compulsive disorder

ODS

osmotic demyelination syndrome

OG

osmolar gap

OGTT

oral glucose tolerance test

OHE

overt hepatic encephalopathy

OHS

obesity hypoventilation syndrome

OPC

organophosphorus compounds

ORS

oral rehydration solution

OSA

obstructive sleep apnea

OSM

oral small molecule

P

p-ANCA

perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

PABV

percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty

PAC

plasma aldosterone concentration

PACI

partial anterior circulation infarct

PACS

partial anterior circulation syndrome

PaCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood

PAD

peripheral artery disease

PAF

platelet-activating factor

PAG

plasma anion gap

PAH

pulmonary arterial hypertension

PAN

polyarteritis nodosa

PaO2

partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood

PAP

pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

PASP

pulmonary artery systolic pressure

PBC

primary biliary cholangitis

PBG

porphobilinogen

PBMV

percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty

PBSCT

peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

PCC

prothrombin complex concentrate

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

PCM

plasma cell myeloma

PCNL

percutaneous nephrolithotomy

pCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PCOS

polycystic ovary syndrome

PCP

phencyclidine

PCP

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PCSK9

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9

PCT

procalcitonin

PCV-13

13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

PCWP

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PCyR

partial cytogenetic response

PD

panic disorder

PD

peritoneal dialysis

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus

pdC1-INH

plasma-derived C1 inhibitor concentrate

PDE

phosphodiesterase

PE

pulmonary embolism

PEA

pulseless electrical activity

PEDIS

perfusion, extent, depth, infection, and sensation

PEEP

positive end-expiratory pressure

PEF

peak expiratory flow

PEG

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

PEG

polyethylene glycol

PEG-IFN

pegylated interferon

PEP

postexposure prophylaxis

PET

positron emission tomography

PFA

platelet function analyzer

PFO

patent foramen ovale

PGA

physician global assessment

PGL

persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

PH

pulmonary hypertension

PHP

pseudohypoparathyroidism

PHPT

primary hyperparathyroidism

PHQ-9

9-question Patient Health Questionnaire

PI

protease inhibitor

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

PID

primary immunodeficiency

PINP

N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen

PIP

proximal interphalangeal

PIPEDA

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act

PKD

polycystic kidney disease

PLCH

pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis

PM

polymyositis

PMC

percutaneous mitral commissurotomy

PMF

primary myelofibrosis

PMN

polymorphonuclear

PMR

polymyalgia rheumatica

PMBV

percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty

PNH

paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

PO

oral

POCI

posterior circulation infarct

POEM

peroral endoscopic myotomy

POTS

postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

PPI

proton pump inhibitor

PPGSS

papular-purpuric “gloves-and-socks” syndrome

PPSV-23

23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

PPV

pulse pressure variation

PR3

proteinase 3

PRA

plasma renin activity

PRBC

packed red blood cell

PRCA

pure red cell aplasia

pre-XDR-TB

pre-extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

PRL

prolactin

PRP

penicillin-resistant pneumococci

pRTA

proximal renal tubular acidosis

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

PsA

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

PsA

psoriatic arthritis

PSC

primary sclerosing cholangitis

PT

pertussis toxin

PT

prothrombin time

PTC

papillary thyroid cancer

PTCL

peripheral T-cell lymphoma

PTCL-NOS

peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified

PTH

parathyroid hormone

PTHrP

parathyroid hormone–related peptide

PTP

pretest probability

PTSD

posttraumatic stress disorder

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

PUD

peptic ulcer disease

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acids

PUVA

psoralens with ultraviolet light in the A range

PV

polycythemia vera

PVA

Prinzmetal variant angina

PVC

premature ventricular contraction

PVD

pulmonary vascular disease

PVE

prosthetic valve endocarditis

PVOD

pulmonary veno-occlusive disease

PVR

pulmonary vascular resistance

PVT

portal vein thrombosis

PWV

pulse wave velocity

PZA

pyrazinamide

Q

qid

4 times a day

QIDS-SR

Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report

R

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RAA

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

RADS

reactive airways dysfunction syndrome

RAEB

refractory anemia with excessive blasts

RARS-T

refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts and thrombocytosis

RBBB

right bundle branch block

RBC

red blood cell

RB-ILD

respiratory bronchiolitis–associated interstitial lung disease

RCD

refractory celiac disease

R-CHOP

rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone

RCM

restrictive cardiomyopathy

RCT

randomized controlled trial

Rd

lenalidomide, dexamethasone

RDI

respiratory disturbance index

RDW

red cell distribution width

ReA

reactive arthritis

RF

rheumatoid factor

RFA

radiofrequency ablation

rFVIIa

recombinant activated factor VII concentrate

RI

resistance index

RIDT

rapid influenza diagnostic test

RIG

rabies immunoglobulin

RLS

restless leg syndrome

RMP

rifampin

RNP

ribonucleoprotein

RPGN

rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

RQ-PCR

real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

RRT

renal replacement therapy

RSV

respiratory syncytial virus

RTA

renal tubular acidosis

rT3

reverse triiodothyronine

RTE

renal tubular epithelium

rtPA

recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

RT-PCR

reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

RV

residual volume

RVH

right ventricular hypertrophy

S

SA

sinoatrial

SAA

serum amyloid A

SABA

short-acting β2-agonist

SAH

subarachnoid hemorrhage

SAMA

short-acting muscarinic antagonist

SANRT

sinoatrial nodal reentrant tachycardia

SaO2

hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood (direct measurement of)

SARA

sexually acquired reactive arthritis

SARS

severe acute respiratory syndrome

SARS-CoV

coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome

SAVR

surgical aortic valve replacement

SBFT

small bowel follow-through

SBP

spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

SBP

systolic blood pressure

SBS

short bowel syndrome

SC

subcutaneous

SCA

serous cystadenoma

SCD

sickle cell disease

SCD

sudden cardiac death

SCID

severe combined immunodeficiency

SCIG

subcutaneous immunoglobulin

SCLE

subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

ScvO2

central venous oxygen saturation

SERM

selective estrogen receptor modulator

SFED

six-food elimination diet

SGLT-2

sodium-glucose cotransporter 2

SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

sIBM

sporadic inclusion body myositis

SIBO

small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

SIRS

systemic inflammatory response syndrome

SK

streptokinase

SLE

systemic lupus erythematosus

SLED

sustained low-efficiency dialysis

SLEDAI

systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index

SLIT

sublingual immunotherapy

SLL

small lymphocytic lymphoma

SM

systemic mastocytosis

SMA

smooth muscle antibody

SMBG

self-monitoring of blood glucose

SNRI

serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

SpA

spondyloarthritis

SPAD

single-pass albumin dialysis

SPB

supraventricular premature beat

SPECT

single-photon emission computed tomography

SpO2

hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood (measured with pulse oximeter)

SPV

systolic pressure variation

SQTS

short QT syndrome

SRS

somatostatin receptor scintigraphy

SSc

systemic sclerosis

SSKI

saturated solution of potassium iodide

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSS

sick sinus syndrome

STD

sexually transmitted disease

STEMI

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

sTfR

serum transferrin receptor

STIR

short tau inversion recovery

STSS

streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

SUNCT

short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing

SVC

superior vena cava

SVCS

superior vena cava syndrome

SvO2

venous oxygen saturation

SVT

splenic vein thrombosis

SVT

supraventricular tachycardia

SYSADOA

symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis

T

T3

triiodothyronine

T4

thyroxine

TA

Takayasu arteritis

TACI

total anterior circulation infarct

TAF

tenofovir alafenamide

TAVI

transcatheter aortic valve implantation

TAVR

transcatheter aortic valve replacement

TB

tuberculosis

TBE

tick-borne encephalitis

TBEV

tick-borne encephalitis virus

TBG

thyroxine-binding globulin

TBI

total body irradiation

TBI

toe-brachial index

TBMD

thin basement membrane disease

TBS

trabecular bone score

TC

total cholesterol

TCA

tricyclic antidepressant

TCD

transcranial Doppler

TDF

tenofovir

TEE

transesophageal echocardiography

TENS

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

TFED

two-food elimination diet

TFR

treatment-free remission

Tg

thyroglobulin

TG

triglyceride

TGA

transposition of great arteries

Th1

type 1 helper T cell

THC

tetrahydrocannabinol

TIA

transient ischemic attack

tid

3 times a day

TIMI

thrombolysis in myocardial infarction

TIN

tubulointerstitial nephritis

TINU

tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis

TIPS

transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

TKI

tyrosine kinase inhibitor

TLC

total lung capacity

TLS

tumor lysis syndrome

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

TNK-tPA

tenecteplase

TNM

tumor-node-metastasis

tPA

tissue plasminogen activator

TPN

total parenteral nutrition

TPO

thyroperoxidase

TR

tricuspid regurgitation

TRAb

thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody

TRALI

transfusion-related acute lung injury

TRH

thyrotropin-releasing hormone

TS

tricuspid stenosis

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

TSH-R

thyrotropin-stimulating hormone receptor

TST

tuberculin skin test

TT

thrombin time

TTE

transthoracic echocardiography

tTG

tissue transglutaminase

TTP

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

TV

tidal volume

TVPG

tricuspid valve pressure gradient

U

UA

unstable angina

UACR

urine albumin to creatinine ratio

UC

ulcerative colitis

UCTD

undifferentiated connective tissue disease

UDCA

ursodeoxycholic acid

UFC

urinary free cortisol

UFH

unfractionated heparin

U-HAE

hereditary angioedema of unknown origin

UICC

Union for International Cancer Control

UIP

usual interstitial pneumonia

ULN

upper limit of normal

URL

upper reference limit

URSL

ureteroscopic lithotripsy

UTI

urinary tract infection

V

VAP

ventilator-associated pneumonia

VATS

video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

VC

vital capacity

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

VF

ventricular fibrillation

VISA

vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

VKA

vitamin K antagonist

VLDL

very low-density lipoprotein

VMP

bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone

VPB

ventricular premature beat

VPC

ventricular premature complex

V/Q

ventilation-perfusion

VRd

bortezomib, lenalidomide, dexamethasone

VRE

vancomycin-resistant enterococci

VRSA

vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

VSD

ventricular septal defect

VSR

ventricular septal rupture

VT

ventricular tachycardia

VTd

bortezomib, thalidomide, dexamethasone

VTE

venous thromboembolism

vWD

von Willebrand disease

vWF

von Willebrand factor

VZIG

varicella-zoster immunoglobulin

VZV

varicella-zoster virus

W

WBC

white blood cell

WBI

whole-bowel irrigation

WDHA

watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria

WHO

World Health Organization

WM

Waldenström macroglobulinemia

WNV

West Nile virus

WON

walled-off necrosis

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson-White

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