Guidelines on Urological Infections. European Association of Urology. Accessed November 2, 2021. https://uroweb.org/guideline/urological-infections
Nicolle LE, Gupta K, Bradley SF, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: 2019 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 2;68(10):e83-e110. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy1121. PMID: 30895288.
Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America; European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):e103-20. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq257. Review. PubMed PMID: 21292654.
Hooton TM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 1;50(5):625-63. PubMed PMID: 20175247.
Genitourinary tuberculosis results from hematogenous spread and may manifest within 5 to 15 years of the primary infection.
Clinical Features Top
In the majority of patients, the disease presents with signs and symptoms of cystitis. Systemic manifestations are rare.
Urinalysis reveals leukocyturia with negative culture results (sterile pyuria); proteinuria and occasionally hematuria develop later in the course of the disease. Imaging studies may reveal a deformed pyelocalyceal system, ureteral stenosis or obstruction, increased bladder wall thickness, and decreased bladder capacity. Confirming the diagnosis usually requires multiple cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; less frequently, the diagnosis is based on histologic examination and cultures of tissue samples collected during endoscopic examination of the urinary tract.
Administration of antituberculosis drugs for 6 months with dosage adjusted to the patient’s kidney function.