Antimicrobial Agents

How to Cite This Chapter: Ghadaki B, Smieja M, Haider S. Antimicrobial Agents. McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine. Kraków: Medycyna Praktyczna. Accessed July 15, 2024.
Last Updated: August 19, 2020
Last Reviewed: August 19, 2020
Chapter Information


Table 10.2-1. US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk categories




Controlled human studies show no risk


No evidence of risk in studies. Either animal studies have not demonstrated a fetal risk and no controlled human studies exist or animal studies have shown an adverse effect that was not confirmed in controlled human studies


Risk cannot be excluded. Either animal studies have revealed adverse effects on the fetus and there are no controlled human studies or studies in women and animals are not available. Only administer the drug if the potential benefits outweigh the potential risk to the fetus


Evidence of human fetal risk. Only administer the drug if the potential benefits outweigh the known risk to the fetus


Contraindicated in pregnancy

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