Lipid Disorders

Chapter: Lipid Disorders
McMaster Section Editor(s): P.J. Devereaux
Section Editor(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Andrzej Budaj, Wiktoria Leśniak
McMaster Author(s): Mirna Attalla, Greg Curnew
Author(s) in Interna Szczeklika: Barbara Cybulska, Longina Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Wiktor Szostak
Additional Information


Dyslipidemias are conditions in which plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, or triglycerides are considered elevated based on the patient’s total cardiovascular disease risk.

Total cholesterol, high-density cholesterol, and triglycerides used to be measured in the fasting state after 12 to 14 hours since the last meal. New guidelines suggest that lipid measurement could be done in a nonfasting state for the purpose of risk assessment and screening, but fasting measurements should be taken while assessing the efficacy of treatment, especially in patients with elevated triglyceride levels.

Low-density lipoprotein levels are usually calculated using the Friedewald formula:

LDL-C = TC – HDL-C – (TG/5 [mg/dL] or TG/2.2 [mmol/L])

Where: LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglyceride.

The calculations are unreliable in patients with a triglyceride level >4.6 mmol/L (400 mg/dL).

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