Exudative Pleural Effusion

How to Cite This Chapter: Wongkarnjana A, Hambly N, Sładek K, Jankowski M. Exudative Pleural Effusion. McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine. Kraków: Medycyna Praktyczna. https://empendium.com/mcmtextbook/chapter/B31.II.3.17.2.?utm_source=nieznany&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=social-chapter-link Accessed June 17, 2024.
Last Updated: February 13, 2022
Last Reviewed: February 13, 2022
Chapter Information

Also see Pleural Effusion.


Pleural exudate is caused by inflammation or malignancy, leading to high protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels.

Causes: Pneumonia (most often bacterial, including tuberculosis; less commonly viral or parasitic pneumonia), tuberculosis, malignancy (including lung malignancy and ovarian fibroma or sex-cord stromal tumor [Meigs syndrome]), pulmonary embolism (usually serosanguineous fluid is present, almost always accompanied by pulmonary infarction), esophageal perforation, pancreatitis, injuries to lymphatic or vascular systems causing chylothorax or hemothorax, thoracic or abdominal surgery, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus), drug-induced reactions (amiodarone, nitrofurantoin, phenytoin, methotrexate, carbamazepine, procainamide, propylthiouracil, penicillamine, cyclophosphamide, and bromocriptine), cardiac surgery, and thoracic irradiation.

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