Esophageal Motility Disorders

How to Cite This Chapter: Chen J-H, Talar-Wojnarowska R, Małecka-Wojciesko E. Esophageal Motility Disorders. McMaster Textbook of Internal Medicine. Kraków: Medycyna Praktyczna. Accessed July 18, 2024.
Last Updated: January 30, 2022
Last Reviewed: January 30, 2022
Chapter Information


Classification of esophageal motility disorders based on the underlying cause:

1) Primary: Achalasia (type I, II, and III); major disorders of esophageal peristalsis including distal esophageal spasm (formerly diffuse esophageal spasm) and hypercontractile (jackhammer) esophagus (previously nutcracker esophagus); other nonspecific abnormal motility patterns.

2) Secondary: In the course of scleroderma, diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse, psychiatric disorders, Chagas disease, and associated with aging.

The Chicago classification of esophageal motility disorders based on the result of high-resolution manometry:

1) Incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter: Achalasia or obstruction within the esophagus-gastric junction.

2) Significant motor disorders: Lack of contractility, contraction of the distal part of the esophagus, excessively contractile esophagus.

3) Mild motor disorders: Ineffective motor activity or segmental peristalsis.

4) Normal esophageal peristalsis.

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