Artificial hearts, the most advanced support systems for both ventricles, are used only in highly specialized centers. A total artificial heart (TAH) is implanted into the patient's pericardial sac in a manner similar to the implantation of the human heart. In general, the device provides a pulsative flow through the device, which mimics the function of both ventricles. Based on the 2021 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure, a TAH should be considered only as a bridge to transplant (BTT).
Although several models are available, the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart (TAH, SynCardia Systems, Tucson, Arizona, US) is the only biventricular cardiac replacement device to receive commercial approval in Canada (Health Canada), the United States (Food and Drug Administration [FDA]), and Europe (CE marking). So far ~2000 implantations have been performed, with subsequent heart transplant (HT) in 60% to 80% of cases.