Are there any diagnostic tests for nonceliac gluten sensitivity available? Is there any ongoing research?
Paul Moayyedi: Yes, it is an interesting area, and people are trying to look at various antibodies that may predict the presence of this disorder or predict response to a gluten-free diet. They are far too experimental at this stage to get excited about, but this is going to be important to do in the future, because as I said, if you do not have a diagnostic test and all you are relying on is the response to treatment, then this is a very loose definition, which is going to get an amorphous group of patients, some of which have diseases that have nothing to do with gluten.
The only area of interest at the moment is antigliadin antibodies that are positive; this is the old test for celiac disease. It is very much out of favor for that, but maybe it has a role in this disorder. Certainly this is something that is being explored.