La influencia del ejercicio en las lipoproteínas

25.10.2021
Wpływ wysiłku fizycznego na lipoproteiny
Anita Kaczmarek (MD), Aleksandra Uruska (MD, PhD)

El envejecimiento favorece el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV)1 como la ateroesclerosis, y como consecuencia, enfermedad coronaria, enfermedad cerebrovascular y enfermedad arterial periférica.2,3 El motivo es que, con el paso del tiempo, se producen alteraciones en la estructura de las fibras de colágeno que influyen en la rigidez de las arterias principales en las personas mayores.3,4 El ACV es una consecuencia importante de la acumulación de placa ateroesclerótica, que se forma a partir de células espumosas de colesterol LDL oxidado.5 Las guías de la Sociedad Europea de Cardiología (ESC) y la Sociedad Europea de Ateroesclerosis (EAS) de 2019 señalan que la concentración elevada de LDL está asociada en mayor medida a un riesgo bastante alto de enfermedad coronaria.6,7 El colesterol HDL cumple una función protectora en la ateroesclerosis gracias a sus propiedades antioxidantes y antinflamatorias, y a la función de transporte reverso de colesterol.8 Sin embargo, existen pruebas de que una concentración muy alta de colesterol HDL (>90 mg/dl) genera el efecto opuesto y aumenta el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria.7,9

La prevención incluye la realización de ejercicio de una intensidad 40-60 % VO2máx cada día durante aproximadamente 30 minutos.1 Este tipo de AF también puede influir beneficiosamente en el diámetro de las arterias coronarias, la capacidad de dilatación vascular, la tensión vascular y la propensión a sufrir fibrilación ventricular.1 Entonces, ¿cuál es la relación entre el perfil lipídico y el ejercicio? El ejercicio aeróbico regular puede prevenir la progresión de la ateroesclerosis asociada a la edad,3 cuyo desarrollo se acelera aproximadamente un 40-50 % entre los 25 y los 75 años.10

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